Nowadays IVF is a widely known reproductive technology. It is “in vitro fertilization”. IVF works with a blend of medicines and surgical measures. It helps the sperm to fertilize the egg and then the fertilized egg (called an embryo) is placed in the uterus.

The procedure called Intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) involves injecting a single sperm into the egg instead od adding the sperm to the egg in a lab dish.

If a man does not have good quality sperm or has a low-quality sperm or even no sperm at all in the serum due to any genetic disorder or illness etc. Then, in those cases, to start the IVF procedure, the sperm of a man needs to be collected directly from the testicle by way of biopsy. 

The collected sperm then can be either used in its fresh form to fertilize the egg or can be frozen for future use. Both ways are equally successful. If fresh sperm is used then both the partners need to be synchronized certainly to get the maximum probability of developing pregnancy. 

But if they choose to use the frozen sperm, it can simplify the procedure of IVF to an extent. One way in which it simplifies the sperm is by managing the time. In the case of fresh sperm, the man cannot give the sperm in advance but in case of frozen sperm, the man can give the sperm in advance and that too at any place as the frozen sperm can be transferred from one lab to another easily.


The process of collecting, freezing, and storing sperm refers to cryopreservation. This process is being used since the 1970s for treating infertility. Stored sperms are banked into a sperm bank and use later in reproductive procedures. Human sperm can be stored for a maximum of 22 years. The stored sperms can either be used for treating one’s infertility or can be donated to others in need.

Optimization of semen cryopreservation

Some factors affect the optimization of semen preservation:

Biological factors – sexual abstinence, seminal fluid quality

Technical factors – cryopreservation medium, addition or removal of cryoprotectant, cooling rate, packaging of sperm, storage of sperm, storing temperature, and thawing process.

Techniques involved in freezing sperm:

There are main techniques used for freezing sperms are:

  • Slow freezing – this freezing involves two to three steps of cooling for two to four hours. It’s done either manually or automatically using a semi programmable freezer. Some researchers say that the conventional method of slow freezing can cause extensive chemical and physical damage to the sperm because of ice crystallization. 
  • Rapid freezing –rapid freezing requires direct contact between the straws in which sperms are stored and the nitrogen vapors for eight to ten minutes and immersion in liquid nitrogen at a temperature of -196o Celsius.


Process in freezing sperm involves:

  • The initial step after collection of semen is screening for infections like HIV, hepatitis, etc.
  • Once the regular screening of semen is done, sperm extraction starts.
  • After extraction of sperm, the quality and quantity of sperm are analyzed in the laboratory. Poor quality sperms are separated and viable sperms are freeze and stored.

Reasons to opt for freezing sperms:

  • If someone is facing a medical treatment that can cause infertility.
  • If a man’s sperm count is declining the quality is deteriorating.
  • If the patient for IVF has difficulty in producing a sperm on the same day of fertility procedure.
  • In cases where the profession keeps the person at risk of injury or death, for example being a member in the armed force.
  • If a man if going for gender reassigning surgery or having reconstructive surgery. Both surgeries have chances of a partial or total loss of fertility. In those cases, it is recommended to get the sperms freeze for the future.
  • A man going for vasectomy surgery also choose to get their sperm freeze so that in case they change their mind to have more children, their sperm will be available.

Risks involved in freezing sperm

There are zero risks involved when semen is collected naturally through masturbation. But yes, there is little risk involved like bleeding and discomfort when semen is extracted surgically.

The freezing of sperm is successful and improving since 1953 and helping couples to conceive babies. The process is completely safe and standardized.

Fresh vs frozen sperm

When it comes to comparison between fresh and frozen sperm. Frozen sperm is as good as fresh sperm because when a frozen is warmed to room temperature, it is equivalent to fresh sperm. Frozen embryos and frozen eggs are much more difficult to use as compared to using frozen sperms.

Happy Patients Review

Shalini Sethi

My experience with Dr. Tanya can’t be expressed into words, after all, she helped me become a mother. After trying for several years, we were recommended Dr. Tanya by a family friend. She was very supportive and professionalism is the reason I have a 6-month baby girl. Thank you, Dr. Tanya, and her team for everything.

Shalini Sethi

Sakshi Kohli

We want to thank Dr. Tanya for everything she has done for my family. My husband and I were trying to have a baby for 10 years, after all, experiments failed, we decided to visit Dr. Tanya. Her positive outlook and experience helped us finally become parents. She is the best IVF specialist in Delhi. Highly recommended.

Sakshi Kohli

Ayushi Malik

Our experience with Dr. Tanya has been very good. She and her team were very warm to us and answered all our doubts with complete transparency. She assured my family that I would be able to conceive. Three months ago I gave birth to my son and that was the happiest day of my life. It wouldn’t have been possible with Dr. Tanya. Thank you so much, Doctor.

Ayushi Malik

Is the egg retrieval painful?

During egg retrieval, you will be sedated and given medication so that you don’t’ feel the pain. After the surgery/procedure, you may feel cramps, soreness, or fullness.

Is bleeding expected after egg retrieval?

After egg retrieval, vaginal bleeding/spotting is common. It is similar to bleeding in periods. In case of excess bleed, you should contact the doctor immediately.

How long do I have to stay in the hospital during and after the procedure?

IVF Procedure does not require any hospitalization. It only requires frequent visits from time to time.

How soon can I return to normal life after IVF?

Once the embryo transfer is done, you can resume your normal life. You may experience cramps because there might be a minor swelling in the ovaries. Stick to a mild routine and avoid exertion as it may affect your chances of getting pregnant.